Angraecum leonis

Monday, November 18, 2013

Growing Aerangis Species & Hybrids

     Over the last thirteen years growing Angraecoids I have learned that when something works well, don't change it.  But; I also want to know what my parameters are.  Then of course I try to push the envelop by experimenting with different cultures.  Giving my presentations to various societies, I usually talk about Angraecoids that are relatively easy to grow for the beginner.  Gain some confidence and then start thinking about plants that may take a bit more understanding to grow them into fantastic specimens.
     Over the last two years I have posted articles on three Aerangis (Aergs. articulata, Aergs. biloba and Aergs citrata); of which I would consider easy to grow.  This post will deal with several species that I consider easier to grow than others.  As you will see, the culture of many of these plants can be very similar and some with a wide range of culture parameters/variables.  Whether it be a species or a hybrid, cultures can be similar.

Image 1 - Aerangis Mire (Aergs. ellisii X Aergs. verdickii)
     First thing that you should keep in mind is the individual plant's natural habitat.  Take the time to do a bit of research.  Having a basic understanding of the plant's requirements should prevent severe mistakes.  Talk to someone who is growing the plant at the present time and pick their brain.  Learning about a plant's climate, including annual monthly rainfall totals and seasonal temperatures; what is it growing on and the type of light it receives at various times of the year should put you in the proper place. 
     The cultures that I talk about in this post are the cultures I use to grow my Aerangis.  I will make comments regarding the cultures that should be considered in cooler/different climates compared to here in South Florida.  These should be looked at as guidelines or starting points.  What works for me may be different for you.
     There are usually about seventy Aerangis species; but it is not uncommon that a plant or two does get reclassified.  Plant size can range from a near non-existent stem to a stem that can reach a height of 31 inches (80cm) in cultivation (Aergs. ellisii, the seed parent of Aergs. Mire in Image 1).  My present Aerangis collection contains Aergs. hyaloides, a stem that would barely be 1 inch (2cm) to the lengthy Aergs. articulata with a stem that can reach 12 inches (30cm).  There are numerous other Aerangis in the collection at various lengths.
 Image 2 - Aergs. articulata, Aergs. biloba & Aergs. citrata
     All Aerangis as other plants have a wet and a dry season.  These seasons may vary in length depending upon location.  During the wet season, usually the active growing season, many of these plants will flourish quite rapidly.  Aergs. articulata, mystacidii, kotschyana, X primulina and somalensis to name of few of mine will grow considerably fast being exposed to moisture all day and can handle being damp during the evening.  Here in South Florida, the rainy season is heavy and the plants take advantage of the large amounts of water.  Late spring into early fall, temperatures can be in the upper 80s to mid 90s daily.  My mounted Aerangis are watered 2 - 3 times a day and often misted very late in the afternoon.  Roots that are attached to the mount as well as the aerial roots will dry out by the air movement that surrounds them (Image 3).  They are then watered again with this process being a daily regiment as long as the temperatures stay high and the plant is actively growing.
     This much water can start to cause an issue with fungus.  Watch for any brown or black spots on the leaves.  When temperatures do begin to drop, plants will still need moisture.  The combination of moisture and cooler temps, fungus can rear its ugly head rather quickly.  My collection is treated on a monthly basis with a systemic fungicide.  I alternate between Thyomil and Dithane 45 every two - three months, keeping a spray bottle of Physan 20 (a topical fungicide) handily available.
                                                            Image 3 - Aerangis articulata
     Many of the Aerangis can be grown under lights, although they are usually some of the smaller variety such as Aergs. citrata, decaryana, fastuosa, modesta, mystacidii, hyaloides and luteo-alba var. rhodosticta to name a few.  While under lights, these Aerangis should receive about the same amount of water but you must make sure that the root systems are receiving a fair amount of air movement.  When seasonal temperatures begin to drop and active growing has slowed down considerably, watering should be cut back.  Do not let the plants stay dry for extended lengths of time.  If you start seeing wrinkled or withered roots; they are not getting near enough water.  Water them at least twice a week.
     For those that are growing them on window sills or on tables next to windows during the colder winter months; have your plants setting in or very near humidity trays.  When your home or apartment is being heated during the cold winters of the north, humidity drops much lower than the plant is exposed to in its natural habitat.  For small mounted plants, arrange the plants on some sort of a stand so that it is in very close proximity or directly above the tray.  Small pots can be set in the tray resting on glass marbles or anything that can keep the pot above the water line.      
      As mentioned, the majority of my Aerangis collection is mounted.  Some of the larger Aerangis can be grown in pots or baskets as long as a coarse medium is used to allow for fast drainage, good air flow and room for root development.  A good sampling of larger plants for potting would include Aergs. articulata, cryptodon, ellisii, fuscata and kotschyana.  Because these plants produce somewhat pendulous inflorescence, they can be hung on a slight angle so that the spikes can drop over the edge of the pot and flower freely.
Image 4 - Aergs. decaryana X Aergs. mystacidii & Aergs. mystacidii
     Flower shapes of the various Aerangis species that I grow will range in shape from a flock of birds in flight to various star shapes and sizes to unusual fan shapes (Images 2 & 4).  Their sizes vary from flowers that are less than a half an inch (8mm) wide by less than a half an inch (8mm) long and a spur that is club shaped and only 1/4 inch (6mm) long [Aergs. hyaloides] to flowers that are up to 2 3/4 inches (7.4cm) wide by 2 3/4 inches (7.4cm) long with a spur that can reach 5 - 6 inches (12.7-13cm) long [Aergs. articulata].  Colors are white while some of them may have delicate hints of green, yellow or pink at the tips of their sepals and petals.  Spurs will be white, a very pale green or a very subdued yellowish green.
     These are just a few of the Aerangis species that I am presently growing.  As stated earlier, the culture that I am currently using is what works best for me in the South Florida climate.  Do the research and ask questions and you will grow these plants successfully.  They will become wonderful specimen plants.  There will be future posts regarding Aerangis punctata culture as well as a post dealing with the flower shape of Aerangis luteo-alba var. rhodosticta.
     Don't hesitate to ask/post questions or comments to the blog!

Thursday, August 29, 2013

LAVA ROCK as a potting medium... PROS & CONS

a post by Craig Morell (Pinecrest Gardens) and
Tom Kuligowski (


       Although this page in the blog is dedicated strictly to the culture of various Angraecoids, I though it advantageous to look into the possibility of using lava rock as a potting medium  Most of the Angraecoids I grow are mounted to various hard woods, cork or tree fern material.
       With some very surprising results observed from growing a few other genera of orchids with lava rock; I thought it time to try a couple of my larger hybrids of Angraecums in lava rock as well.  While attending the Redlands Orchid Festival this past spring, I heard of a vendor that was selling Angraecum Memoria George Kennedy.  (The sad part of the story is that I never did find them.)
       I had the opportunity to tour an orchid grower's greenhouses while in Durham, North Carolina to give my Angraecums presentation to the Triangle Orchid Society.  In one of the greenhouses, I spot not one but four Angcm. Memoria George Kennedys; all four were in perfect shape and in six inch clay pots with nothing other than 100% red lava rock.  John Stanton, the owner of Orchid Trail Nursery, told me that he had just repotted the four plants several weeks prior to my visit.  I told him  the story of my search at the Redlands show and the fact that I came up empty.  To make a long story short, about ten days after my visit to North Carolina, I received a box via FedEx containing all four plants.
       As well as the plants had been packed, three of the pots were completely shattered.  Looking on the brighter side of this issue, I did get to inspect the root systems very closely and was amazed as to how much the roots had developed and actually flourished.  Keep in mind though that the plants are going through their peak growing period during the warm weather season.
       My decision to experiment with lava rock is based on the results I have observed after mounting a Dendrobium rigidum to a large piece of red lava rock.  This particular species is known to be a slow grower; but I was told to mount it to red lava rock; that Den. rigidum would take advantage of the iron content as well as the other minerals within the rock.  The plant has tripled in size in just eight months.

       When growing orchids, we must always keep in mind the sometimes overwhelming variables with which we deal.  Variables include types of fertilizers, pH of the irrigation water, light quality and intensity, as well as other chemicals we use on our orchids.  Of course, the types of media we use as potting materials and use as orchid mounts can make quite a difference.  In this post, lava rock is the medium I will investigate further.
       Information gathered over the last few weeks has given me a better understanding as to what is happening and what can happen when using lava rock.  I have not used anything other than the red type.  A geologist has confirmed that there is an iron content within the rock.  Needing to know what other minerals may be available to plants when exposed to this material was also important to determine the other avenues in which the plants may possibly thrive.
       I find it ironic that the first three minerals listed that are found in red lava rock are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (the three main components represented by the three numbers you find on plant fertilizers' containers).  Other minerals are zinc, iron, copper, magnesium, boron, sulfate, calcium, manganese and sodium.  The above minerals are not in a form that can be absorbed by the plant.  A plant's root system releases organic acids such as citric acid and oxalic acid.  These acids turn the solid minerals into a form that can be absorbed and used by the plant.  To the average lay person or hobbyist, this lone paragraph would lead us to believe that the minerals contained in red lava rock would give our plants a jump start in their growing patterns.  This can be very true; but as I said earlier, there are "...overwhelming variables with which we deal".
       There are numerous considerations in choosing red lava rock as a potting medium for your orchids.  Depending on where you live, you may not have good access to the medium.  The lava rock should be washed thoroughly before using; it has a LOT of fine dust particles which can affect the orchid roots badly, as well as make a mess underneath the pot or basket after watering.  Irrigation water pH will make a large impact on whether the medium is successful or not.  High pH water (over 8) will eventually lead to calcium buildup on the lava rock, as well as make many of the minerals and metals contained in the lava rock unavailable to the plant.
       Many of the Cymbidium tribe of orchids grows beautifully in lava rock; but the combined weight of the rock and a large plant preclude it from being used as a medium in hanging baskets.  One of the major down-sides to lava rock is that it will hold a lot of water on the center of the pot; especially in pots over 8" in diameter.  Many growers will use an inverted plastic pot in the center of the larger pot to allow extra airspace in the center of the pot when using lava rock to further air and water drainage.
       Various growers report differences in lava rock from year to year; in some cases, orchid roots will turn away from the medium and in other batches of rock, roots will flourish in the rock.  Growers do report that certain genera seem to disfavor the lava rock.  Brassavola seem to shy away from it, as do some terrestrials.  Growers of Aroids (such as Philodendron, Anthurium, Monstera etc.) find lava rock to be an ideal medium and in Hawaii it is the favorite medium for stock plant production of many flowering plants.
       If nothing else other than giving a plant with a fairly thick (velum material) root system; the roots will have a quick drainage when watered and ample space to breath.  My suggestion is to talk to someone that has had experience with lave rock as a medium.  Keep in mid, what works for one may be detrimental to someone else.
       For those of you that are using lava rock now or have in the past; please leave your experiences and thoughts to the matter in the comments section just below this post.  Thank you all! 

Monday, August 5, 2013

Eurychone rothschildiana

       Eurychone rothschildiana was formerly know as Angraecum rothschildiana (still considered the synonym).  The plant originates in Tropical West Africa and east to Uganda and Zaire.  Commonly found near small amounts of moving water and at elevations up to 3900 feet (1200m) in evergreen forests.

Eurychone rothschildiana (1st time with buds)
       The plant pictured above is an older seedling that is in bud for the first time.  Having a group of three seedlings, two were mounted to rough cork slabs (average size about 6 x 4 inches (15x10cm) in height and width and one was potted in a three inch (8cm) clay pot.  Those mounted to the cork slabs were laid on a loose and thin layer of moss and covered by small pcs. of coconut tree fiber to protect the outer most roots.  The sole plant that was potted is in a mostly non-organic mix with about a 10% amount of medium coconut pieces.  The entire mix is medium in size for fast drainage letting the root system partially dry after watering.
       Eurychone rothschildiana is a compact plant that will have a short monopodial stem.  Specimen plants will rarely have a stem reaching 4 inches (10cm).  There can be anywhere from 3 to 8 broad egg shaped leaves that are up to 8 inches (20cm) long and 2.8 inches (7cm) wide.  As with all Angraecoids, the leaves are distichously placed along the stem.  They have a leathery substance and range from a medium to dark green.  The roots are .1 to .2 inches (.3-.4cm) thick.
       Depending on the climate in which you are growing Echn. rothschildiana; special attention should be made to the temperatures that the plants are exposed to.  In its natural habitat, the warmest daytime temps average only 81 degrees F (27 degrees C) while in cooler months the average daytime temperature is 71 degrees F (22 degrees C).  This plant should do well in temperate climates within greenhouses that can keep this range along with a relative humidity range of 71% - 84% year round with the higher humidity levels being during the summer months.  Here in sub-tropical South Florida, while plants are grown in open aired greenhouses or arbors, it is important to keep the plants cooler during the extreme warm months of late spring into early fall (almost a six month period of temperatures 10 - 15 degrees F (8 degrees C) higher than that of the plants natural habitat.  This can be accomplished with a constant strong air movement.
Echn. rothschildiana
       The active growing season can last up to ten months.  Only coming to a rest period during a short winter dry period.  During the active growing season, plants should be watered very regularly.  Mounted plants during the hot summer months up to twice a day; which can help with the humidity levels.  Potted plants should be watered every two to three days as long as the drainage is fast.  You must also be careful not to let water sit in the crown for any length of time.  Giving the root system an opportunity to slightly dry.  During the two month rest period, the plants should be watered enough to keep them from drying completely.
       I use a standard 20-20-20 fertilizer every 7 days during the active growing season while backing off to every three weeks for the two month rest period.  A systemic fungicide such as Thyomil is used to treat the entire plant as well as the root system and is switched to Dithane 45 every third month to prevent a resistance build up.  There is always the possibility of minor issues arising so a quart spray bottle with Physan 20 is kept on hand for spot problems.  Keeping a constant air flow also helps prevent serious problems from developing with fungus.
       The amount of light that Echn. rothschildiana is given ranges from 1000fc - 1800fc.  Both of the mounted plants are in an area that is actually a bit lower.  They receive absolutely NO direct sunlight during any part of the day; in other words they are in what I consider a low Phalaenopsis type of light.
Eurychone rothschildiana
       Eurychone rothschildiana will bloom here in the northern hemisphere throughout most of the year.  It is most likely to bloom in July and least likely to in the cooler winter months.  Mature plants can bloom at any point though.  The inflorescence is pendant like and will range in length from 1.2 - 3.5 inches (3-9cm) and can carry 3 - 6 flowers.  Mature specimen plants have been know to have as many as a dozen blooms.  The blooms are fragrant and have white to light green sepals and petals with the lip being white edges turning to green and then a dark maroon or brown throat.  The flowers average just under 1.25 inches (3cm) wide by 1 inch (2.5cm) high.  The lip can be 1.1 inches (2.7cm) long by .8 - 1.0 inches (2-2.5cm) wide.  It is very concave and scalloped around its edges.  The spur is narrow in the middle and swells at the tip; its length is .8 - 1.0 inches (2-2.5cm) long.
       As mentioned earlier in this post, Echn. rothschildiana is a compact plant.  Potted or mounted, it will do well in a sub-tropical climate as well as the colder climates in the northern hemisphere.  Be well aware of the fact that it will freeze if placed to close to a window during harsh winters. 
       There is one oddity about this plant you should realize.  It is known to be short lived.  A healthy mature plant can die suddenly without warning.  I have not experienced this issue myself; but have had several discussions with Craig Morell, the horticulturalist at Pinecrest Gardens in Miami, Florida.  He has had several well cared for mature specimens die suddenly for no apparent reason.
       One last note: Eurychone rothschildiana has been crossed with Aerangis and Angraecums to create at least three hybrids to date; Euryangis Victoria Nile, Eurygraecum Lydia and Eurygraecum Walnut Valley.  The last two being created by Fred Hillerman.  

Saturday, June 1, 2013

New Plant; Re-Pot NOW!

     When purchasing a new plant, don't let it sit around for any length of time.  Get it out of the pot it is in, change the medium out and watch it hopefully bloom and become a phenomenal specimen.  I do realize there are occasions where you can leave your new orchid in the pot it came in; but understand this, you really have no idea as to how long the plant has been in the present pot (usually plastic), how long it has had shredded packaging material taped to the top of the pot and how moist (saturated) the potting medium is.
     Most growers use bark, coconut pieces or moss when growing their inventory.  As I just mentioned, sometimes it is advantageous to leave things as they are; but there are often times you should change everything as soon as you bring it home with you.  I do not fault any of the growers for their methods of packaging.  Very often, what they do not sell is shipped to the next destination (show) and usually restock what they are short of.  Many of the plants are in plastic and are watered prior to having a packing material (shredded paper) taped to the tops of the pots.  The plants will not dry out that way.  However, keep in mind, bark and coconut are an organic growing medium and will hold moisture very well.  Being in plastic with very little drainage creates the following issue.
Angraecum Lemforde White Beauty
     I recently purchased an Angraecum Lemforde White Beauty at a local orchid show.  It was in a four inch (10cm) wide plastic pot with minimal drainage (a small opening in the bottom).  The medium appeared to be a fine red bark that looked newly applied and was very clean.  Upon tilting the pot to get the plant out of its container, the red bark material spilled out showing me that it had been just a thin layer covering the actual medium.  After working the pot by squeezing it completely around its circumference, the plant was liberated from its container.
     The first thing I noticed is that the root system was very well developed.  The issue was the medium used was all coconut pieces (holds a large amount of water) and was extremely saturated beyond being moist.  With the poor drainage and abundant amount of water, the root system was starting to show signs of decay.
Basal Section of Angcm. Lemforde White Beauty
     Organic growing materials break down or decompose.  That same medium when saturated for long periods of time will decompose at a faster rate.  With poor drainage and no air giving the root system an opportunity to slightly dry; there is a better than good chance the roots will begin to rot or start to decay themselves.
     As long as the roots are exposed to the saturated medium, it is only a matter of time before the velum material surrounding the actual root will begin to decay.  Usually the root material will start to turn black or darken drastically.  The image below show several area where this decay has started taking place.
Beginning Signs of Root Rot
     I removed the original coconut medium and lightly washed the decayed material out of the root system.  As much as I talk about NOT messing with the root systems of most Angraecums due to their sensitivity, I cut away all of the infected root to try and eliminate the rot from spreading.  I treated the entire root system with a topical fungicide (Physan 20) and then placed the plant in a six inch (15cm) wide clay orchid pot (they have the vertical slots cut into them on three or four sides).
    Most of the new potting mix was non-organic such as charcoal, perlite, sponge rock,  1/2 inch (1.3cm) diameter clay pellets and a small amount of tree fern material with about a 10% amount of coconut pieces (to hold a small amount of moisture).
     I did not water the plant for three days, giving it a chance to dry some what.  When I did water the orchid for the first time, I used a systemic fungicide (Thyomil) in the water to give the plant a better opportunity to fight off any further development of root rot.  I am currently keeping a very close eye on my new Angraecum Lemforde White Beauty.  I will give an update to its condition in about three or four months.
     You can check a new plants root stability before purchasing it by using your thumb and forefinger.  Gently grab the base of the plant near the surface of the medium and gently wiggle it.  If the plant does not really move much or at all, the chances are good the the root system is solid.  If the plant moves freely, there is always the possibility that there is an issue with the root system.  It is always in your best interest to re-pot ASAP after purchasing a new orchid.  If there is an issue, don't hesitate to talk the the grower where you got your plant.  If you talk to him in a reasonable amount of time, he will or should make good on the issue.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

Angraecum germinyanum

     Most of the posts on this page up until now have concentrated on established plants that have bloomed numerous times.  This post will concentrate on the development of a seedling and a plant blooming for the first time.  Both were gifts and required the utmost care in their early stages of growth.  I believe that there is nothing more exciting in an orchid collection than seeing a plant bloom for the first time.
Angraecum germinyanum
     Angraecum germinyanum original habitat is on the central plateau of Madagascar with elevations between 2950 - 4900 feet (900-1500m).  The plant is considered to be an intermediate to warm grower due to the drastic temperatures of its natural habitat with a high of 93F and a low of 33F (34C - 0C).  The average maximum temps usually range from the low 70s into the mid 80s (22C-28C).  The low temps are reported to have an average of 49F to 62F (9C-16.5C).
     When I received the plant that would initially bloom for the first time, it was in a 2 inch (5cm) plastic pot with bark as the medium.  The stem was just over 4 inches (10cm) tall and covered with very green leaf sheaths.  The leaves are about 2 inches (5cm) long and have a very bright green shine to them.  The root system within the growing medium is just about 2mm wide.  The aerial roots are thinner.  Very mature plants have been reported to be near 40 inches (100cm) tall with 3 - 5 branches extending out nearly 20 inches (50cm) out from the main stem.  This however is rare to find in the wild as well as culture.
Singly borne flowers opposite the leaf axil
     Flowers are borne singly from opposite the leaf axil with a pedicel of 1 1/4 inch (3cm) long.  The pedicel is connected to a peduncle which usually is less than a 1/2 inch (1cm) coming from the stem.  Angcm. germinyanum flowers can reach a length of 5 - 6 1/2 inches (15-16cm) long.  The lip is turned up (superior type lip) and is 3/4 - 1 inch (1.7-2.3cm) high and wide with a pointed tip at the top of the lip which is about 7/8 inch (2cm) higher.  The sepals and petals are 2 3/4 - 4 inches (7-10cm) long with the petals crossing under the lip.  Both the sepals and the petals are twisted.  The spur is 4 1/2 - 5 1/8 inches (12-13cm) long.  Angcm. germinyanum is not a fragrant flower; but its unusual twisting and unique shape make up for that.
     Once the plant was finished blooming, it was placed in a 4 inch (10cm) terracotta pot.  A medium sized non-organic mix (charcoal, sponge rock and perlite) with a small amount (10%) of coconut pieces was used.  The root system within the medium was minimal showing that it had received to much water.  The regiment for watering the plant was every four to five days giving the root system the opportunity to re-establish itself.  Several new aerial roots started to grow within just a week or two giving the plant a sense of new life.
     After the plant had been in the pot for six months, it proved to be establishing a strong root system.  With late spring temps now in the mid 80sF (29C-30C), the plant is watered every three days and fertilized once a week.  Keep in mind that most Angraecum seedlings and immature plant's root systems can start to rot rather quickly due to the fact the roots are very thin.
     Angcm. germinyanum does have a rest period.  Watering should be reduced and fertilizing stopped for about a three month period.  The plant can be misted between the watering every 5 - 6 days as long as the temps do not drop below 65 F (18C).  Resume a normal watering schedule when you see the growth season begin.  The plant can be re-potted as long as new roots have appeared; paying close attention to not disrupt the root system to harshly.
     With the amount of water that the plant is receiving and the fact that it is in a medium shade type of light, it is best that you be sure to treat the plant on a regular schedule of a systemic fungicide.  I use Thyomil and Dithane 45 on an alternating schedule.  Also make sure that the plant is in an area that will get a good air movement over it.       
     The amount of light that Angcm. germinyanum requires is considered a medium shade, about 1000 - 2000fc (footcandles).  This individual plant is presently receiving an average of 1300fc.  However, it does get direct sunlight for about an hour and a half when the sun first rises.  And absolutely no direct light after that time period.  It has grown about 1 1/2 inches (3.7cm) in the last six months.
Angcm. germinyanum seedling
     The Angraecum germinyanum seedling above is in its second year of being on the mount.  In the nearly two years, it has barely grown a 1/2 inch (1.3cm).  During the spring and summer growing season, it is watered (saturated) every morning and misted mid-afternoon.  It is my opinion that this seedling should have been kept in the flask longer than it was.  It is however growing a decent root system and as long as it is cared for and watched for any problems, whether those issues be insects (which was a problem the summer prior) or disease, it could eventually bloom; in about three to four years.
     As with any orchid or tropical plant, once a plant is established in a given area, it is best to leave it be in that area.  With the proper amount of water, fertilizer and light, it will bloom and become a mature specimen.


Sunday, May 12, 2013

Whats Light Got To Do With It? Part Two

     The presentation titled "Whats Light Got To Do With It" was given to the Boca Raton Orchid Society just a few days ago for the first time.  It was accepted very well by the members that were in attendance.  This post is a review of a post dated back in July 2012 and also a few bits of new information as well.
     I think it is imperative to understand the basic explanations of light when an experienced grower gives a hobbyist (especially a beginner) the light parameters for a plant to grow and eventually bloom.  I have witnessed to often a hobbyist nodding their head and walking away not really understanding what the grower has said.
     At any of the presentations that I give, I thoroughly explain to the audience to take a few moments and research the plant they have purchased.  The are numerous websites, forums and blogs that can supply specific data regarding just about any orchid in our collections. 
     Specializing in the Angraecum Alliance, I have reviewed many of the specific requirements for well over 600 species.  The light requirements will range from deep shade to bright sun light through various parts of the day. 
     It is very common to see a plants light requirements be given in the measurement of footcandles (fc).  Below are several different ways to measure the intensity of light so that you can determine where to place your plants (any type of orchid or plant) so that they can thrive and bloom as they should.

Measuring light levels with a Digital SLR camera:
     Set the ASA or ISO to 100
     Place a piece of white paper in the area you want to measure
     Fill the view finder of the camera with the white paper and be sure that your shadow does not
          interfere with the white paper (it is not necessary to focus)
     Take a meter reading, the following shutter speeds and fstops represent the following:
          1000 fc - 1/2000 @ f2.8
          1000 fc - 1/1000 @ f4
          1000 fc - 1/500 @ f5.6
          1000 fc - 1/250 @ f8
          1000 fc - 1/125 @ f11
          2000 fc - 1/2000 @ f4
          2000 fc - 1/1000 @ f5.6
          2000 fc - 1/500 @ f8
          2000 fc - 1/250 @ f11
          2000 tc - 1/125 @ f16
          4000 fc - 1/2000 @ f5.6
          4000 fc - 1/1000 @ f8
          4000 fc - 1/500 @ f11
          4000 fc - 1/250 @ f16
          4000 fc - 1/125 @ f22
          8000 fc - 1/2000 @ f8
          8000 fc - 1/1000 @ f11
          8000 fc - 1/500 @ f16
          8000 fc - 1/250 @ f22
     If your camera does not set lower than an ISO 200, set it to the 200 and double the footcandles.

Using a photographers hand held light meter:
     Set the light meter to an ASA or ISO to 100
     Make sure the the white cap is covering the meter for ambient light only
     Have the meter pointing up toward the light source and then take the reading
     Once the accurate reading is set, the EV numbers will indicate the footcandles equivilent:
          EV 10 - 168 fc
          EV 10.5 - 336 fc
          EV 11 - 478 fc
          EV 11.5 - 673 fc
          EV 12 - 951 fc
          EV 12.5 - 1345 fc
          EV 13 - 1903 fc
          EV 13.5 - 2601 fc
          EV 14 - 3805 fc
          EV 14.5 - 5382 fc
          EV 15 - 7611 fc
          EV 15.5 - 10763 fc

Your light source, your hand and a sheet of white paper:
     Place a sheet of white paper in the area that you wish to place a plant
     Place your hand twelve inches above the white paper with the light source above
     Looking at what happens to the shadow will determine the type of light you have:
          A very distinctive shadow exists with sharp edges: Vandaceous type light (5500 - 8000 fc)
          The shadow has softened greatly, edges are soft: Cattleya type light (1200 - 5500 fc)
          There is NO shadow at all, appears overall muddy: Phalaenopsis light (150 - 1200 fc)

Be sure to keep an eye on the seasonal position of the sun.  It is highest in the sky with short shadows during the summer (June 21st the longest day) while the sun is lowest in the sky with extremely long shadows during the winter (December 21st the shortest day).    


Monday, February 25, 2013

Angraecum leonis (Size Identifies)

     In August of 2012, the initial post regarding Angraecum leonis was published in the blog.  Since then, I have received numerous emails and questions dealing with the two varieties of Angcm. leonis.  The questions center around the distinctive differences between Angcm. leonis from Madagascar and Angcm. leonis from the Comoro Islands.  This post will give a visual description of the two varieties along with a review of the culture that I use to grow these phenomenal plants.
     As stated in the original post, the Angcm. leonis from Madagascar is the smaller of the two varieties.  It grows at the very northern tip of Madagascar at about sea level where the annual rainfall is nothing compared to the amount of rain that the variety from the Comoro Islands receives.  The amount of rainfall has a big play into the size of the two varieties. 
     With less rainfall, the Madagascar version is usually half the size.  The leaves are shorter but are very fleshy.  The thickness of each leave can be 2 - 2 1/2 times as thick.  The leaves hold moisture due to the fact they receive less rain.  As I have shown with other Angraecums, when the plants are exposed to more moisture, they have a tendency to become larger plants.  When they are not, they adapt to survive.

Angcm. leonis (Madagascar version) the thick fleshy leave
                                      retains what moisture it can get due to the dry climate.
     The leaves of the Madagascar version are about half the size on a mature plant compared to the version from the Comoro Islands.
Angcm. leonis (Madagascar version) the longest leaf on this
                                      mature plant is less than half the size of a leaf from the
                                                               Comoro Islands version.
Angcm. leonis (Comoro Islands version) the leaves on each
side of the plant are just about the same length.  Can reach
an overall combined width of 14 plus inches (35 cm) on a
well established mature specimen.
     Both versions of Angraecum leonis will do well mounted to a cork or a tree fern slab.  During the warmest part of the growing season, the plants must be watered daily with an additional misting later in the afternoon.  If you see that there are wrinkles forming in the leaves, hydrate the plant several times a day until the wrinkles start to disappear.  If the plants have been mounted with any moss around their base, be sure to thoroughly soak the material (it will dry out quickly during the summer heat and with any breeze blowing).
     Either version can be potted or placed in baskets with a fast drain medium.  The roots of plants that have been placed in pots can develop root rot if not allowed to partially dry.  Very often when the leaves start to show wrinkles, it can also spell out the fact that the roots have rotted and the plant is not getting sufficient moisture even if you're watering on a regular basis. 
     Keep an eye on potted plants!  In sub-tropical and tropical climates, it is best to use a non-organic material when potting or placing plants in baskets.  This very warm and humid climate will brake down the organic mediums very quickly forcing you to change the medium more frequently.  This does not bode well for the root systems.
     Flowers of the two versions of Angraecum leonis is also another tell tale sign as to the identity of the plant.  The Madagascar version of Angcm. leonis is only about 1 - 1 1/2 inches (3-4cm) wide and about 1 1/2 - 2 inches (4-5cm) high with a nectary/spur about 2 3/4 - 4 inches (7-10cm) long.  The Comoro Islands version is about 2 1/4 - 3 inches (6-9cm) wide and about 3 inches (8cm) high with a nectary/spur of about 3 1/2 inches (9cm) long.  Both versions are scented and can last up to four weeks if the plants are not exposed to harsh weather while in bloom.
     One last visual point of difference between the two Angcm. leonis versions is the shape or the bends of the nectary/spur.  The nectary of the Comoro Islands version goes back behind the flower draws down and then comes forward underneath the flower.  The Madagascar version will go behind the flower, draw down and as it comes forward reverse again to form the letter 'S'.  These are common traits but keep a mental note that not everything is written in stone.
The Comoro version on the left while the Madagascar version
is on the right showing the letter 'S' in a developing bud of
Angraecum leonis.
     No matter what version you are growing, you will be very pleased once the plant starts producing flowers on a yearly basis. 

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Oeoniella polystachys

     Oeoniella polystachys is one of the few Angraecoids that inhabit all three island chains that surround Madagascar; the Comoro Islands west of the northern tip of Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands to the east of Madagascar and the Seychelle Islands to the north and northeast of Madagascar as well as inhabiting the lowlands of eastern Madagascar itself.  An epiphyte that grows primarily on trees not much higher than sea level.

Oeoniella polystachys
     The main reason I started growing Oenla. polystachys is because of the sub-tropical growing conditions here in South Florida.  It thrives on large amounts of moisture and has a very short rest period.  I started with plants in pots and mounted to tree-fern totems.  In just a few short months, I eventually mounted all of the plants due to the aerial roots coming from the plant as it grows.  It is almost always in a growing phase, no matter the time of year.  As you can see in the image below; it was potted as a seedling and already in bloom for the first time.  After learning more of the plants characteristics and realizing that it climbs somewhat, I thought it best to mount.
Oenla. polystachys first time blooming
     Mounted to a tree-fern totem, Oeoniella polystachys will eventually start attaching itself to the totem.  Aerial roots will form up the length of the plant usually to within 4 inches (10cm) from the top.  It is best to have a bed of moss at the base to help hold moisture until the aerial roots have taken hold.  The roots form just above the old inflorescence or opposite the leaf axils.  Most of those roots will find the totem material and grab hold.  Although I eventually mounted the plants that I had put in pots, doesn't mean you shouldn't grow them that way.  My suggestion is that the pots be at least 5 - 6 inches (13-15cm) wide and a medium that would allow fast drainage and giving the roots the air that they need.  The stems of the plants have the capability to grow to 24 inches (60cm) tall but are very seldom seen that high.  To keep the plant from dropping over or becoming pendant, they should be staked or supported in a manner to keep them erect.  Oenla. polystachys can start to branch heavily and keeping it erect will give the added support necessary.
     Plants that are mounted should be watered daily and when temps reach above the mid 80s F, they should be watered or misted a second time about two - three hours prior to sunset.  Allowing the plant ample time to dry before dark.  Plants that are potted should be watered every 2 - 3 days and when warmer temperatures arrive, mist the plant mid to late afternoon.  As stated earlier, Oenla. polystachys  has a very short rest period.  Watering should not be backed off unless temperatures drop below 70 degrees F.
     Oeoniella polystachys will do very well in a warm greenhouse in the cooler/colder parts of the northern hemisphere while mounted or potted.  If the plants are kept indoors such as a home, they should not be exposed to temperatures below 70 degrees F for any great length of time.  As long as warm temperatures are maintained, watering habits should not change.  Please note; if temperatures do lower, watering can be cut back to every other day when mounted and every 4 days while in a pot.
Oeoniella polystachys mounted to a tree fern totem
     Oenla. polystachys is capable of taking very bright light as long as it is diffused or spackled the entire day.  Most of my plants receive a fare amount of direct sunlight until about noon or mid-day.  During the hotter part of the day, mid-after to late afternoon, the light is toned down.  A bright shade or 25 percent spackled light works well.  It is imperative that a good air movement be available; if it is not, do not expose the plant to any direct sunlight, keep it in a bright shade or a spackled light.
     A mature, well nurtured plant should bloom or be in bloom twice a year; with a 2 - 4 month break in between.  The inflorescence develop at the opposite side of the leaf axils and are about 6 - 10 inches (15-25cm) long.  Each inflorescence carrying 10 - 15 flowers.  Mature plants can produce 5 - 7 spikes at one time.  The flowers range in width, 3/4 - 1.5 inches (2-4cm) across.  The spur/nectary is about 1/4 inch (.6cm) long forming at the base of the lip and tapers at the tip.  Flowers can last 3 - 4 weeks and longer if the plant is protected from harsh weather conditions and are fragrant in the early part of the evening.
Oeoniella polystachys
     My plants are fertilized every 7 days with a well rounded and balanced fertilizer year round.  They are treated every 30 days with a systemic fungicide that I switch every three months.  I am always on the lookout for signs of fungus on the bottom side of the leaves.  A wet climate for too long of a period or cooler weather can bring about fungus issues.  Keeping a quart spray bottle of a topical fungicide is a great idea.
     Oeoniella polystachys is a phenomenal plant for those that keep warm conditions year round. Like any other Angraecoid, give it what it requires and then be prepared for outstanding flowers.     

Sunday, January 27, 2013

Aerangis citrata

     Aerangis citrata, the Latin interpretation means "lemon-colored", referring to the two small bead shaped tops of the anther cap.  When first opened, the lemon color is very pronounced.

Aerangis citrata
     Formerly known in some circles as Angraecum citratum, Aerangis citrata is found throughout Madagascar.  From the southeast coast through the central part of the country into the northwest section.  It is an epiphyte growing on lower branches that can be found at sea level to about 4,900 feet (1,500m).  It is almost always found near water of some sort and is highly adaptable in several types of climate as long as the moisture is available.
     Aerangis citrata is a very easy plant to grow.  It is often sought after by collectors that prefer mini or small species because it will grow and thrive under lights.  A decent specimen plant will bloom 2 - 3 times during the year and will produce numerous inflorescence with as many as 15 - 20 flowers.
Aerangis citrata
     As with all of my Aerangis that I grow, Aergs. citrata is grown mounted to cork slabs.  I prefer the plants to be slightly pendant so that any excess water does not sit in the leaves against the stem.  The water runs off of the plants easily.  This also allows the inflorescence to freely become pendant and the flowers can be seen at just about any angle. 
     During the warm late spring, the hot summer and into early fall, the mounted Aerangis' are watered every day.  When temperatures reach the mid eighties and into the nineties, the plants are also misted heavily in the afternoon hours.  Giving them enough time to dry off prior to night fall.
When temperatures do cool down into the low seventies and lower; the watering frequency is cut back to just misting in the morning and regular watering every three days.  It is important to mist the mounted plants throughout the warmer days because the plant can dehydrate without enough moisture.
     As stated earlier, the plants are highly adaptable and can handle the warm summer days and cooler temps of fall and winter.  For plants that are grown in the hobbyists' home in colder regions; be sure to keep them away from direct contact of windows where temperatures can be 10 - 15 degrees F (6-9C) cooler than a spot on a table just a few feet away.
     The amount of light that my plants receive is no brighter than bright shade and have been placed in areas for short periods of time that is less than average Phal light.  Aerangis citrata should not get any direct sun light.  The leaves are broad and thin enough that they will burn easily and dehydrate the plant itself.  It will do well in average Phal light.
     For those of you that are growing Aerangis citrata in small pots; be sure that the mix you're using drains and no excess water sits in the pot.  Although the plant requires and thrives on that moisture, you do not want the roots to rot.  The stem's average height is about 2.4 inches (6cm) and will hold 6 - 8 leaves that are 3 - 4.7 inches (8-12cm) long by 1 - 1.5 inches (2.5-4cm) wide.  It will do very well in a 3 - 4 inch (8-10cm) pot and should not out grow it.  If the medium that you are using does start to break down, re-pot the plant at the beginning of the growing season (early spring) so that the plant does re-establish itself quickly.
     I use a standard fertilizer once a week throughout the entire spring, summer and early fall.  Once the watering is backed off, I eliminate the fertilizer until spring or when the new growth begins.  A systemic fungicide is applied every three to four weeks and I keep a watch for small issues due to the amount of water given to the plants.  Insecticides and mite-icides are applied every 6 - 8 weeks and a small amount is kept on hand in case there are any problems.  Here in South Florida, spider mites can creep up suddenly as well as white fly problems (which have become a big nuisance in the last year or so).  Watch for scale on the inflorescence as they develop.
     During the blooming periods, inflorescence will grow from the leaf axils.  Each can be up to 10 inches (25cm) long and carry up to 18 flowers.  Buds will form along the entire length of the flower spike about .4 inches (1-1.3cm) apart and will always face in one direction.  Flowers are .6 - .7 inches (1.5-1.7cm) wide by .7 - .8 inches (1.7-2.0cm) high.  Each flower has a club shaped nectary or spur that is about 1.2 inches (3cm) long.  It is usually green from the throat of the flower turning a pristine white at the last quarter length of the tip.
Developing buds & flowers of Aerangis citrata
     Once the inflorescence has grown and the buds begin to develop, they all develop upright.  The short nectary will already be in position and that is facing down or dropping down.  The flowers will open successively.  Those being closest to the plant opening first and then towards the tip.  It is said that the flowers have a faint citrus fragrance, although I have never picked up on that.
     Aerangis citrata will become a beautiful specimen plant in 3 - 5 years after it's first blooms appear.  Be sure to give it the proper care and meet its requirements and the plant will bless you with numerous flowers a few times a year.  

Monday, January 21, 2013

Angraecums in Fort Lauderdale

     The Fort Lauderdale Orchid Society held their 53rd Annual Orchid Show this past weekend.  They held a Preview Party on Thursday evening kicking off the show which was attended by several hundred guests.  The show officially opened Friday morning and ended the day with a record number of patrons attending.  Saturday and Sunday were just as busy and vendors that lived close enough were scrambling back to their green houses for more product.  All in all it has been declared an unofficial huge success.  That brings me to the real reason for this post.  Angraecums at the Ft. Lauderdale Show; not for sale, but plants that were used in the vendors displays.  T-h-r-e-e !
     I think its sad that the twenty-two orchid vendors that are required to set up displays; only three used an Angraecum.  I realize that the displays showcase the plants that each vendor may be known for or plants that they have specialized in hybridizing.  Yet each grower still uses plants that they sell to fill in spots or fill a design plan.  This time of year, their are several very large and showy Angraecums available in bud and in bloom.  Yet very few of the growers use the Alliance for display let alone attempt to sell.
     Setting aside the displays for a moment, I will say that there were several vendors with a slight selection of Angraecums.  One vendor from California, Cal Orchids had a decent selection of miniature and compact Angraecoids.  Of which I obtained numerous plants.  The point that I'm getting to is this; the Angraecum Alliance is not a popular group of plants.  There are over 600 species of Angraecoids with a large volume of hybrids now available.  The big showy plants such as Angcm. sesquipedale, Angcm. eburneum, not to mention some of the hybrids, Angcm. Veitchii, Angcm. Crestwood and Angcm. Lemforde White Beauty have gained some popularity.  When you see mature plants at the orchid shows, you see some heavy duty prices.  Many people don't want to bother with a seedling because of the amount of time it will take to grow into a prize winning specimen.  I can't forget to mention that some growers and hobbyists are afraid to grow them thinking that the plants are too demanding.  That their requirements are to stringent.  I will admit that some of the Angraecoids are a bit finicky; but think of this, give the plant what it needs and you'll be rewarded with the most beautiful flowers you can imagine.  Most are fragrant at night and will last several weeks or more.

Angraecum Veitchii
     The plant in the image above is an Angcm. Veitchii.  It was the first Angcraecum hybrid between Angcm. eburneum crossed with an Angcm. sesquipedale.  Many people are not aware of the fact that the hybrid suffers from "Twisty Flower"; and it has suffered from this affliction from day one (1899).  The seed parent, Angcm. eburneum has a superior lip.  It has turned up an erect, like a hood.  The pollen parent, Angcm. sesquipedale, has an inferior lip, it is down and points out.  The terms superior and inferior have nothing to do with quality; it is just the terminology used for the type of lip the flower has.
     Angcm. Veirchii is the offspring and its flowers can't seem to make up their mind as to how the lip should position itself.  Therefore, each flower opens facing the ground or being parallel to it.  You never seem to see the face of the flower.  The trick here is to wait for the first flower at the tip of the spike to start to open.  As soon as you see the sepals of the bud starting to split, stake the spike upright.  The flower will open facing out as will each flower after that.  Stake the spikes to soon and the flowers will still open facing down.  Once you've staked the spikes properly, you can now enjoy your hard work and enjoy the large showy blooms.
Angraecum Crestwood
     The image above shows an Angcm. Crestwood.  It is the offspring of a cross between Angcm. Veitchii and Angcm. sesquipedale.  By introducing Angcm. sesquipedale into its own offspring, the flowers have become larger, a more pristine white and they no longer suffer from "Twisty Flower".  Each flower opens facing out, however the nectary or spurs have a tendency to stick out and away from the bloom rather than hang down.  This individual plant was very well grown and cared for.  The leaves were spotless and the height of the plant was just over 18 inches (45cm) tall.
Angraecum eburneum
     The last Angraecum to make an appearance at the Ft. Lauderdale Orchid Society's show is Angcm. eburneum.  The plant is a species and is the seed parent of Angcm Veitchii.  Its flowers are tightly grouped on staked spikes; in the wild the inflorescence is usually some what pendant like.  The plant can reach close to 5 1/2 - 6 feet (1.8m) in the wild.  Both of these plants were close to 3 feet (1m) high.
     All of these Angraecums are fragrant at night and do well in a coarse medium; allowing the root system quick drainage and the chance to breath.  They really don't have a rest period during the winter months like some of the small Angraecoids do.  With the proper care they can outlive their owners.

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Angcm. magdalenae & Her Hybrids

     With some reluctance, I've decided to publish this post in its unfinished state.  The main reason is the lack of information I've been able to gather or should I say NOT gather.  It has been a very slow process and I know that their are numerous readers that have been waiting for this post.  I will continue to add to it over the next several weeks or months for that matter as I gather more information.  I am sorry to say that its beginning is rather bleak.
     As I had stated in a post made on the tkangraecums page in facebook; one of the first readers of the blog asked a very simple question.  They knew of two hybrids (Angcm. Lemforde White Beauty and Angranthes Grandalena) created from Angcm. magdalenae but wanted to know if there were any others available.  Before I answer that question, let me say that the reader is very passionate about the species Angcm. magdalenae; as well she should be.  She presently has three Angcm. magdalenae and two Angraecum Lemforde White Beauties.  Many botanists consider the species near extinct while a few do use the word extinction.  It is hobbyists like this reader and myself and so many others; along with some growers that are trying to keep the species alive by growing them in their private collections.  It would be a shame to sit back and watch as one of the most beautiful Angraecums disappears into oblivion.

Angraecum Lemforde White Beauty
(Angcm. magdalenae x Angcm. sesquipedale)
(Lemforder Orchids - Originator, Registered 1984)

     Now, the answer to that question is that there are twenty registered hybrids.  I am not using the word available.  The first registered hybrid using Angcm. magdalenae as one of the parents was in 1975 (about thirty eight years ago).  That was a cross between Angcm. magdalenae (seed parent) and Aeranthes ramosa (pollen parent).  The plant produced was registered as Angranthes Lomarlynn.  This hybrid would also be the first to run into a brick wall as far as gathering any information.  I have found nothing about it anywhere other than the registered name and the originator (R. Ciesinski).
     Again, I am not going to use the word available or availability; I will use the phrase NOT AVAILABLE (n/a).  After thinking about the lack of information, I started coming to the conclusion that the hybrid(s) were no longer available because they may have sold out to quickly and then it hit me.  The possibility of the originator, registrant and/or grower not wanting to continue the hybrid.  I have talked to several growers about this and they all but confirmed the probability of the hybrid(s) just fading away.  Their consensus is the following.
     Many growers that do specialize in hybridizing orchids spend years trying to improve certain plants.  Bigger flowers, flowers that last longer, grow faster and are a sell able asset.  It takes time, money and space to eventually produce a hybrid that is profitable.  If any of these criteria fail, the hybrid will usually just be discontinued and eventually fade away.  Their thought of what may have happened to the Angcm. magdalenae hybrids is that they weren't showy enough, that they grew too slow which prevented a profitable product and at the time, Angraecums were no where near the top of any one's list to take the time to grow.  On the other hand, Fred Hillerman, who had his hands in the creation of seven Angcm. magdalenae hybrids may have decided that their results were not what he was expecting.  Keep in mind that he was the forerunner went it came to many Angraecoids.
     Of the seven hybrids that Fred Hillerman created using Angcm. magdalenae as one of the parents, four of them seem to have faded away.  I have been unable to locate any information regarding Angcm. Eburlena, Angcm. Cuculena, Angcm. Longilena and Angcm. Ruffels (which is/was an Angcm. Eburlena x Angcm. magdalenae) other than the parentage and the dates the hybrid was registered.  Two of the hybrids have been awarded; with Angranthes Grandalena (Aeranthes grandiflora x Angcm. magdalenae) receiving 7 HCC/AOS awards and 1 AM/AOS award and Angcm. Stephanie (Angcm. Veitchii x Angcm. magdalenae) receiving 1 HCC/AOS award and an AM/AOS award.  Let me point out that neither hybrid has been awarded anything in the last 23 plus years.  The last of Fred Hillerman's hybrids is Angcm. Superlena, although it has never been awarded, there are several in hobbyist's collections.

Angranthes Grandalena
(Aeranthes grandiflora x Angcm. magdalenae)
(Fred Hillerman - Originator, Registered 1978)
     The following list contains the hybrid name, seed parent, pollen parent, originator and the year that the hybrid was officially registered.  They are listed chronologically by date.
Angth. Lomarlynn - Angcm. magdalenae X Aerth. ramosa - R. Ciesinski - 1975
Angcm. Lady Lisa - Angcm. scottianum X Angcm. magdalenae - R. Elsner - 1977
Angth. Grandalena - Aerth. grandiflora X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 1978
Angcm. Stephanie - Angcm. Veitchii X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 1982
Angcm. Superlena - Angcm. superbum X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 1983
Angcm. Lemforde White Beauty - Angcm. magdalenae X Angcm. sesquipedale - Lemforder - 1984
Angcm. Eburlena - Angcm. eburneum X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 1984
Angcm. Vigulena - Angcm. magdalenae X Angcm. viguieri - R. Ciesinski - 1987
Angcm. Crystal Star - Angcm. rutenbergianum X Angcm. magdalenae - D. Pulley - 1989
Angcm. Cuculena - Angcm. cucullatuim X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 1989
Angcm. White Emblem - Angcm. didieri X Angcm. magdalenae - T. Matsuda - 1991
Angcm. Amazing Grace - Angcm. florulentum X Angcm. magdalenae - T. Takimoto - 1993
Angth. Longilena - Aerth. longipes X Angcm. magdalenae - Great Lakes - 1997
Angth. Etoile Filante - Aerth. neoperrieri X Angcm. magdalenae - M. & M.F. Bourdon - 2001
Angcm. Longilena - Angcm. longicalcar X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 2004
Angcm. Sorodale - Angcm. sororium X Angcm. magdalenae - unknown - 2005 (reg. RHS)
Angcm. Ruffels - Angcm. Eburlena X Angcm. magdalenae - F. Hillerman - 2006
Eugcm. Wallnet Valley - Eugcm. Lydia X Angcm. magdalenae - unknown - 2006 (reg. Rinke)
Angcm. Cloud's Christmas Cradle - Angcm. Lmf. Wht. Beauty X Angcm. magdalenae - Rossi - 2007
Paraphalraecum Memoria Barbara Oviatt - Angcm. magdalenae X Paraphalaenopsis Kolopaking -
     R. Ciesinski - 2011
     This list makes up all of the registered hybrids in which Angcm. magdalenae was used as one of the parents.  I am currently working on gathering information regarding their availability.  I will say that several have faded away for now.  I will post again in a few days. 
     Thank you everyone for being so patient!    
In a few days, I'll make additional comments regarding this entry.  Lets call it a "serial post".